Quinta, 13 Junho 2013 16:00

A Pré-história do Tocantins

A História do Tocantins começa antes do descobrimento do Brasil, quando o atual território do estado era povoado pelos índios xingus e txucarramães.

No século XVI, dentro do contexto da política mercantilista que concentrava no comércio, o acúmulo de riquezas, e nas posses de colônias e metais preciosos, surge inerente à descoberta (usaremos o termo chegada, visto que os índios já viviam aqui quando os europeus chegaram), do Brasil, o processo de ocupação do hoje conhecido estado do Tocantins.

A fase pré-colonial cuja maior referência é a chegada dos colonizadores em 22 de abril de 1500, traz a luz fatos interessantes que permeiam o início do processo de colonização das regiões que deram origem ao estado.

Tocantins/txucarrameO Tratado de Tordesilhas, que dividia terras recentemente descobertas em meados de 1494, trairia o rei de Portugal, de forma que mais tarde por medo de perder seu mais novo território para outros países organizara sua primeira expedição comandada por Martin Afonso de Sousa, isso em 1530, já que suas chamadas expedições Guarda-costas, não apresentaram resultados contra os corsários e piratas que contrabandeavam o Pau-brasil.

Com a conquista por parte de ingleses, franceses, espanhóis e holandeses mais ao norte do Brasil, os mesmos descobriram a foz rio Tocantins a partir de 1498. Para catequizar os nativos deixaram o padre capuchinho francês Yves d'Evreus. Na área hoje compreendida Maranhão, Pará, Tocantins e Amazonas e com a ajuda dos índios Tupinambás tiveram a pretensão de colonizar a amazônia,através do empreendimento França Equinocial. Nessa época não havia nem a vila de Belém , nem as capitanias do Maranhão e Pará. Eles subiram o Rio Tocantins, pela foz ,foram aprendendo a língua e os hábitos dos indígenas da região,fundaram feitorias no Baixo e Médio Tocantins e Alto Araguaia. a corte não podendo ultrapassar o tratado de Tordesilhas, contratou secretamente expedições. As conhecidas Bandeiras, que deram aos seus membros o nome de bandeirantes, eram na verdade expedições particulares, mercenários que em busca de riquezas, eram capazes das maiores aventuras no interior do Brasil.

Em 1590 a primeira bandeira sob o comando de Antônio Macedo e Domingos Luís Grau partia de São Paulo e após três anos possivelmente chegou aos sertões de Goiás, no leste do Tocantins.

Em 1690 surgem em Minas Gerais as primeiras lâminas de ouro, mais tarde em 1718 em Cuiabá, de forma que Goiás situado entre estes dois estados alimentou a crença de que também guardava o precioso metal em seu subsolo. Com essa argumentação o bandeirante Bartolomeu Bueno da Silva, o Anhanguera conseguiu licença do rei de Portugal para explorar a região. Essa movimentação em torno de Goiás é que povoou a região, sendo assim Anhanguera não foi o primeiro a pisar na região, mas sim o povoador, já que os que antes estiveram lá (Bandeirantes e Jesuítas) não se fixavam na região, apenas exerciam suas atividades, os primeiros explorando, e os segundos catequizando depois indo embora.

Anhanguera, que era filho do primeiro Anhanguera que esteve nessa região, acompanhara seu pai anos antes, sendo ele mencionado na história como o homem que ateou fogo em álcool na presença de índios para convencê-los de que era algum tipo de mago, ou pajé. É sabido, no entanto que tal artifício era comum entre os bandeirantes, e que o primeiro deles a utilizar esse ardil foi Francisco Pires Ribeiro. Saindo de São Paulo em 3 de julho de 1722, a rota era conhecida até o Rio Grande, mas elementos da natureza como regiões semi-desérticas do cerrado fizeram muitos dos bandeirantes morrerem de fome, tal era a situação que os sobreviventes precisaram comer macacos, cachorros e até alguns dos próprios cavalos.

 

Obstinado Anhanguera não cedia ao fracasso a possibilidade de vitória, e jamais aceitava a ideia de que deveria voltar de mãos vazias. Após várias mortes, seja por causa da fome, doenças ou ataques de índios hostis, Anhanguera finalmente descobriu ouro nas cabeceiras do rio Vermelho na região da atual cidade de Goiás, e dali não demorou muito até que as minas da região tornassem-se conhecidas por Minas dos Goyazes.


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